Roman Fighting Tactics

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Roman military tactics (which revolved around heavy infantry) can be divided up into two distinct periods: before the Marius reforms, and after the Marius reforms (around 100BC).
  • Pre Marius: In each legion, there would be dozens of maniples consisting of around 120 men each. The heavy infantry of a legion would contain hastati, princeps, and triarii. They would be supported by velites skirmishers, and their flanks would be protected by equites cavalry. The tortoise, hamstringing, the wedge, and vastatio were some of the tactics used at this time,
  • Post Marius: The basic unit of the military became an enlarged maniple. Now, instead of three distinct heavy infantrymen, they were simply called legionaries. Auxilaries (non-Romans trying to gain citizenship) also played an important support role.
For more information, Dictionary of Battles by David Chandler

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